Popular in the late eighteenth century on Adam and other furniture. Escritoire – A word borrowed from the French to denote a piece of furniture at which one can write. Acanthus – A leaf design used to ornament furniture in carving. Used particularly in mid- and later eighteenth century in Gothic or Chinese taste. It was in the walnut period that the crossgrained mouldings in small pieces, which generally shrink slightly apart and yellow so beautifully with age, came into their own. Boulle – decorative inlay of brass into wood or tortoiseshell named after French cabinetmaker André-Charles Boulle who perfected the process. Gothic – A style which keeps reappearing but which is derived from Gothic architecture and was used on furniture in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, again in the mid-eighteenth century, again in Regency times (‘Strawberry Hill Gothic‘)  and again in Victorian times by Pugin, etc. If left as open decoration, known as ‘open’ fret. a marked stripe figure, used for interior joinery, furniture and flooring. Found on chests and case furniture. 1. Jun 3, 2014 - A Glossary of Furniture Terms Infographic. At Atlantic Shopping, we have years’ worth of experience in the furniture industry. Diaper – A decorative pattern of diamond-shaped lines with dots or forms inside. Used particularly above bureau bookcases of the first half of the eighteenth century in both walnut and mahogany examples. at the Restoration or Charles II period. The cockbead solved the lip moulding breakage problem and was used on mahogany furniture from 1730 throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth century, although plain mahogany drawers without any beading were also common. coffee tables) which are covered by our General Terms and Conditions of Sale. Swag – A decorative form shaped like a hanging festoon, often made up of husks or flowers. GLOSSARY 2 RATTAN RESOURCES 2 Biology and systematics 2 Anatomy and morphology 7 Physiology 10 Management and plantations 11 Harvesting 13 RATTAN AS A RAW MATERIAL 15 Grading, classification and general terms 15 Post-harvest handling 21 Storage 22 Trade 22 Transport 23 PROCESSING 23 For local artisanal uses 23 Industrial level furniture manufacturing 34 TRADE 26 … Loose Cover: A throw or fitted cover that goes over a sofa, chair, etc. Bamboo – the bamboo form as a leg or otherwise was popular during the influence of Eastern designs in 1740-1760, and again at the turn of the eighteenth into the nineteenth century. Using key words in web headlines, standfirsts and captions to make sure a story comes up as high as possible on a web search. During the first half of the seventeenth century however, fairly crude dovetails were introduced. Loop-Back: An oval chair back without arms. Frets – Fretwork either applied or cut from solid and used as decoration. Also spelled  Buhl or Boull. Night stand or night table - Small table placed at the side of the bed, it may have drawers. French term for "drop lid" or "fall front" as in an abattant secretary. fittings, apparatus, or necessary accessories for something. The retention of this oil varnish, which provides a magnificently mellowed surface after years of polishing, is an important factor in pagination. Made up of a series of small rectangular blocks. Bracket foot – a simple shaped foot with a straight corner edge and curved inner edge. Furniture & Design Terms. Ball foot – a turned round or spherical shaped foot used mainly in the 17th century. Cockbead – A small bead moulding used on the edges of drawer fronts from 1725 onwards. Between the drawers at this time the carcase fronts were covered by the half-round or D-moulding and the double half-round or double-D moulding, with the latter the rarer of the two. Loo Table: A large Victorian card or games table. Initially it is probable that a vertically veneered front with simple diagonal grain crossbanding – a sort of half herring-bone – was used. Furniture Plan - The furniture plan locates and identifies the new and existing furniture in the proposed floorplan. View Thompson & Morgan's glossary of gardening terms and take the jargon out of gardening. Clubfoot – Virtually the same as a pad foot and most commonly found on cabriole legs. In the eighteenth century and before, the mouldings used were based on architectural designs and had a boldness of shape and execution which nineteenth century makers with machines to do the work failed to maintain. Stringing – Thin lines of inlay used as formal decoration, usually made in contrasting woods such as box, with possibly ebony and box patterning in later eighteenth century pieces. Our team of experts work hard to bring you the best in home and commercial furnishings, and, over the years, we’ve learnt a lot about stools, tables, chairs and beds. B. Mahogany furniture of the eighteenth century was treated according to its type. folding tables or height adjustable shelves. << Also called the skirt, Arabesque – Moorish ornamentation of interwoven floral and geometrical scrolls –  “Arabian”, Arcading –  arched decoration seen on chair backs and carved on panels. The French name was pied-de-biche. Although some of the terminology may be confusing it is helpful to read them below and then view our antique furniture for … Varnishing in the modern sense was also used, many inferior woods being varnished dark brown in order to resemble mahogany. Originally these veneers were hand cut with a saw and were fairly thick – up to an eighth of an inch. Art Nouveau – A style of the late Victorian and Edwardian period. Accent Furniture - Any piece of furniture placed to add decoration to a room or to compliment another piece (or pieces) of furniture. Made by laying two strips of veneer at right angles to each other in ‘V’ form to give a feathered or herring-bone effect. %���� Sometimes found in early accounts in the form ‘scrutoire’. Runner – The strip of wood on which a drawer runs. Pieces of solid wood that have been hand-carved or shaped by machine and glued onto a piece of furniture. Bolection moldings – ogee-shaped molding which are proud of the panel or wall they are applied. On tables the piece directly under the top that connects the legs. A Quick Guide to Design Terminology: Furniture. Integral mouldings, of course, cut across. Mahogany furniture of the eighteenth century was treated according to its type. Garden Furniture Rattan Furniture Parasols Benches Dining Sets Loungers Wooden Furniture Party Tents & Gazebos. A disadvantage was that unless the stop blocks at the back of the drawer remained fixed. This was in use from c. 1680 to c. 1710. This was the drawer edged by an ovolo lip moulding which hid the gap between the drawer and the carcase edge. Serpentine – A curved shaping particularly valued in chest front forms. Walnut furniture of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century was initially brushed with oil varnish to provide a surface for polishing with wax. Nevertheless lacquering continued to be used as decoration into the nineteenth century. Herring-bone – An inlaid banding or border used in walnut veneered furniture for decorative effect. Shell – The shell, or scallop, was a popular decorative motif in the walnut and early mahogany period, covering the years from 1700 up to c.1770. Buffet – a term loosely used to describe a piece of furniture of the sixteenth and seventeenth century used as a sideboard, with open shelves supported on bulbous turned members. Also split in half and applied as decoration. Also used to describe the curve of a broken pediment cornice. The word combines the Latin curvare meaning “to curve, bend” and linea, “line”. Also see ‘Hairy Feet’. About 1790 some drawer bottoms had a central bearer introduced and were made in two halves running across again. /Length 11 0 R Furniture Collectors' Glossary PDF - reading online is now so easy! Gallery – A term used to describe an arcaded, pillared, or columned open sequence of decorative surrounding or cloistered motif, which can be in wood, brass or other Stile – The vertical part of framing of a panelled piece of furniture. Usually a chair will have the crest rail set on top of the stiles and a backstool will have it set in the middle. Subsequently beeswax and turpentine polish was used to keep surfaces in good condition and to preserve the wood. It can be solid or pierced, plain or carved. They could be cut along the grain of the wood to give a straight, plain effect without much figure, or across the branches to form oysters. Spade Foot – A tapered foot of square section used in the later eighteenth century and much associated with Sheraton and Hepplewhite designs. However, when the change to veneered walnut furniture took place, a variety of possibilities came about. Stylized carving of the acanthus leaf commonly used to decorate furniture. About the time of the transition to walnut, in 1680, the bottom runner appeared. Quartering – A means of obtaining a formal pattern in wood figure by taking four consecutively cut pieces of veneer, which have identical figuring, and setting them in opposing senses to give a mirrored pattern effect. Fluting – Grooving of semi-circular or concave section used as ornament or design on flat or turned surfaces, usually to lighten the appearance of a piece or to give a required proportion to the design. Bergére – an armchair, originally with upholstered sides, but now a term used to describe a chair with cane woven sides and back, usually post-1800 in date. Page furniture everything on the page except pictures or text of stories. For that reason, we checked in with interior designers to find out the top industry terms that are worth knowing. See ‘Broken Pediment’. Scagliola – A plaster and marble chip composition, made to imitate marble, used for table tops in the eighteenth century. In the Regency period actual bamboo reproduction was made in other woods (or even iron, as the stair banister in the Brighton Pavilion). Backstool – a stool of the oak age with a back and no arms which proceeded the side chair form. Made to look like the sun’s rays and often inset in a concave shaping of the bottom drawer. Late seventeenth and early eighteenth century furniture of European Continental makers used this style and its influence spread to England. Cavetto – A hollowed, concave moulding of quarter-circle section. To be distinguished from inlays by the fact that design is veneered on to a carcase and not cut into the solid. Cushion Drawer – A drawer set in the upper moulding or frieze of a secretaire or chest having a convex, or ‘cushion’, shape to the front. Towards the end of the eighteenth century the mouldings became tighter and under the influence of Hepplewhite and Sheraton designs were curtailed or dispensed with altogether. Usually double-D moulding, cut, like the single version, across the grain, was used to maintain the proportion on broader carcase front edgings. Drawers – A guide to dating furniture with drawers can be obtained from their construction. Swan-neck – Term used to describe drop handles of eighteenth century form. Patera – A round or oval decoration either applied, carved or painted on wood, used as an ornament. Oyster veneer – Oystershell veneering, or parquetry work, was produced by cutting the small branches of walnut, laburnum, olive and other woods across the branch to give a concentric ringed effect and laying these veneers in a decorative pattern. Active program or window - The application or window at the front (foreground) on the monitor. A similar principle is used for a tambour shutter on sideboards and night tables. Denia itself is quite laid back and has a large selection of restaurants. Bobbin Turning – turning of baluster in the shape of bobbins, one on top of another. Popular in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century as well as in Adam designs. Tenon – A joint form shaped to fit exactly into a cavity called a mortise. Apron – ornamental rail below the seat-rail of chairs. By the late seventeenth century it was being produced in England, but the vogue seemed to die down to lesser proportions In the second quarter of the eighteenth century. The team is very friendly and professional, both in terms of the teaching and support outside the classroom. Linenfold – A carved design used on panels of early sixteenth century date. Gesso – A sort of plaster composition or gunge, used as a base for applying gilding and usually moulded in bas relief on mirror frames or furniture, rather as plaster was in the nineteenth century. Honduras mahogany was either oil  varnished or rubbed with linseed oil and brick dust to give a hard polish. quarter of the century brass castors with stylized motifs made their appearance. Baroque – a style of richly ornamented type with flowing curves and masks of various heads. Note some drawers have side runners, i.e. Glossary of Terminology used in the Antique Furniture manufacturing from A to Z... Home; Antique Furniture Glossary "A" TO "E" Abattant . Ceilings are equally as ornate, with gilded … In mahogany furniture the applied mouldings are nearly always cut along the grain. Also called a bench stop. The inverted heart shape was much used in the furniture of this style and bronze beaten plaques were also popular as decoration. Husk – A decoration used in Adam and Hepplewhite designs of bell-shaped form frequently shown in festoons. Furniture Glossary of Terms. conceal a chamber-pot. Acanthus. This form has continued up to modern times. Cam lock A complete locking assembly in the form of a cylinder whose cam is the actual locking bolt. Bead – small half-round molding carved to resemble a string of beads or pearls, Bentwood – wood softened by steam and shaped for chair parts. Split Baluster – Used as a decoration on chests of sixteenth and seventeenth century and made by splitting a turned baluster vertically in half to provide a flat surface for application. © 2020 Wakefield-Scearce Galleries. Anthemion –  Another decoration, this time like the flower of the honeysuckle. Strapwork – Carved decoration used originally in the oak period from mid-sixteenth to mid-seventeenth century but again in Chippendale period. Ram’s Head – Decoration used by Adam in mask form. Clustered Column – A design of medieval origin used in the mid-eighteenth century consisting of several pillars clustered together. Broken Pediment – a pediment above a piece of furniture which is usually classical in style with, of course, the center point missing, i.e. Baluster – turned vertical column straight, spiral, vase-shaped, etc. Hipping – A form of cabriole leg extension used on rather better quality pieces, in which the leg continues at the top to a level above the seat rail. Also: Top Rail or Cresting Rail – usedbto describe the top wooden member between the uprights of a chair back. A Dutch influence seen in Elizabethan and Jacobean furniture. In chests and cabinets along the bottom. Scroll Foot – A cabriole leg termination of French origin used from mid-eighteenth century. Loper – The rectangular section length of wood under a bureau fall which pulls out to support the fall when open. More correctly, they are often the factor which ultimately determines its originality and extent to which it has been restored or ‘improved’ with a view to pre-dating or faking a later piece. By the time the mahogany period was in full swing, after 1740, the dovetails had increased further and become finer. French polishing has developed much since then and is now a much shorter process than the original method. stream Hoof Foot – An animal form of foot used on early, perhaps original, cabriole legs. From the Victorian period paper thin veneers came into use and were obviously attractive because of the saving in wood. All modern veneered furniture is covered in these thin knife-cut sheets. Southern yellow pine This is often used for interior and exterior construction as it's easy to work and finishes well. Used from the sixteenth century. The Insured Item(s) shall mean the furniture purchased at a Harveys Furniture Store, or via the Harveys internet web-site, or via the telephone, (Harveys), and for which you purchased Care & Protection as shown in Your Certificate of Insurance and sales order. Also called bearer, dead metal. Adding to this list daily. Its use seems to have declined after the William and Mary period (1689-1702) and was revived again in the late eighteenth century. A variation was the use of inlaid boxwoodand ebony stringing lines from c.1690 to c.1710. Finial – A turned knob used at the intersection of stretchers on tables, chairs and stools to complete a design effect. Used from mid-sixteenth century onwards. About 1710 an alternative form appeared. Furniture Village Call to order ‘til 7pm 0800 804 8879. Attended in July 2019. Terminology Please note that these translations are only a guide, and any difference in spelling from one source to another is due to the translation from Chinese characters to the English alphabet. Pediment – A moulding or shape above the cornice of bookcases and other furniture. Burr veneers were obtained by malformations of the grain due to injury, such as lopping. material. Used with mahogany and rosewood as decoration and usually a mark of quality. Back . Once you have a foundational understanding of common terms in design, you will be able to easily navigate and convey your individual flare. Gadrooning – A carved edge of repetitive shapes usually convex curved form. Castors – Early forms of castors were made – c. 1700 – of wood, both wheel and axle. Synonym of secretaries. Also used on the hoods of longcase clocks. Acanthus leaves have a curved shape and somewhat ruffled edges making it very decorative. Walnut furniture of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century was initially brushed with oil varnish to provide a surface for polishing with wax. Ovolo – A moulding form of a convex quarter-circle section. • functional furniture e.g. Column Turning – Turning in the form of a column used from the mid-seventeenth century onwards. Hepplewhite and Sheraton both illustrated carved chairs in the 1790s and subsequently, through Regency and Victorian periods, it was used in dining chairs and others. Usually lined with lead or zinc to enable watering to be done without rotting the wood. Spoon back – Descriptive of chair back on which the splat curves like a spoon handle. Blind Fret – fretwork glued or carved upon a solid surface. Artificial leather is a material intended to substitute for leather in fields such as upholstery, clothing, footwear and fabrics and other uses where a leather-like finish is desired but the actual material is cost-prohibitive or unsuitable. %PDF-1.2 equipment for streets and other public areas, as lighting standards, signs, benches, or litter bins. Rococo – An extravagant style, using much scroll work and of exuberant nature in its motifs, very predominant in the 1740-50 period and reappearing again in the 1840-50 Victorian era. Furniture Dictionary . Hairy Feet – Derogatory slang for fine carved paw feet, mainly after Hope and Smith, c.1820. Spiral Twist – A form of turning often known as barley-sugar twist very popular in the late seventeenth century. Seen in chair stretchers and/or backs and table legs. Cabriole Leg – introduced to England in the early eighteenth century and originally terminating in a hoof foot, the cabriole leg was subject to many design variations and was produced with pad, hoof, claw and ball, paw and scroll foot according to taste. Escutcheon – A motif used as a center decoration. Resin/plastic shapes are sometimes used as imitations for applied carving. The form was introduced from Holland in the late seventeenth century. Veneer – A thin sheet of wood which can be cut from the tree in several ways. Canterbury – A term used in the late eighteenth century for rather mobile furniture and said to be named after an archbishop that Sheraton illustrated a supper Canterbury which was the forerunner of the modern tea trolley, used for holding cutlery and plates. Ogee – A double curve, convex at the top and turning to concave below. Used on gateleg and Pembroke tables. Here we have listed some of the words you might want to enter int… The drawer bottom, whether of pine or oak, ran from front to back as far as grain was concerned. The backs, arms and feet of chairs and sofas come with elaborately carved floral designs. A country form of simple crossbanding to drawers was used, with the half herring-bone, well into the first half of the eighteenth century. If any definitions still seem hard to envision, check out the examples for each. The carcase front edging was, in this case, flat veneered, obviating the need for D- or double D-mouldings. About 1810 the process of French polishing began by using shellac dissolved in spirit. Lacquer – Lacquer furniture was popular from an early date, being originally imported during the sixteenth century but becoming more popular during the seventeenth. 10 0 obj This helped to seal off the wood and provide a bright hard finish. Rule Joint – An edge joint found on drop-flap tables from the seventeenth century, but pretty well superseding other plain joints in the eighteenth century. Interior design is a world unto itself and just like other professions, it has its very own language. Brass Inlay – brass inlay and stringing became popular in the late Georgian and Regency period 1800-1840. The industry has its own abbreviations, adjectives, and furniture terminology which we use frequently, forgetting that not everyone speaks this language. Arrow foot: A type of chair foot that ends in a tapered cylinder, often seen in the 18th century. Pilo Arts, ranked as one of New York's best 5 Color Salons, is the definitive authority on hair, beauty, and wellness in the North East. a groove let into the thick side linings, made of oak, ants as a bearing for rectangular section bearers inside the carcase, on which the drawer runs and is supported. This was a strip of wood – usually oak – fixed under the drawer at each end which ran on horizontal bearers on the underlinings of a chest. Mahogany veneers of great decorative effect were also much used from about 1745, although the early Cuban mahogany was not much used for veneers. In English furniture the foot is usually longer than it is tall. Accent furniture may be placed simply for aesthetics or the piece may serve a practical purpose, such as an accent chest may store items such as blankets. Tray-top – A top of detachable type usually with a fretted opening in the vertical sides to act as a carrying handle. Frieze – The surface below a table top or the part of a cornice consisting of the flat surface beneath the top moulding. Furniture terms and Descriptions. Dictionary of ICT Terminology A Absolute Link: A term used by Web authors. Applied Carving . Agate . Rails – The horizontal part of a joined frame of a panelled piece of furniture. Nearly all furniture was French polished during the nineteenth century and few pieces from the eighteenth century have survived in an unstripped repolished condition. See bun foot. Also loosely used to describe the top of a night table. Jun 3, 2014 - A Glossary of Furniture Terms Infographic. Stretcher – The wooden connecting strut between legs of tables and chairs. The linings used continued to be oak or pine and in later furniture, from about 1770, the bottom was made with the grain running across instead of front to back. H��W]o�:��D� QE��zL�{w���m.X䅑[IԊRS����rl)�nEڢ�1s�3��gyH�8Ҙ������݆�}�=$4��ήÀ�0�qA�����,�J���ˎ�ˮ.U�����댲�,���ga?�Eb��v,M`J�xL�O�E��nNų &���I�'ɓ�="�N�o=0C|�)�< Reeding – Convex raised beads on furniture: the opposite of fluting. Motion furniture - Furniture designed with the ability to be used in different positions, and be able to move. Log Furniture: Western and rustic style furnishings that are made out of actual wood logs. 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